Ganymede and Callisto are similar in size and are made of a similar mixture of ice and rock, but data from theGalileo and Voyager spacecraft show that they look different at the surface and on the inside. Just like Earth and Venus, Ganymede and Callisto are twins, and understanding how they were born the same and grew up to be so different is of tremendous interest to planetary scientists.
Ganymede and Callisto’s evolutionary paths diverged about 3.8 billion years ago during the Late Heavy Bombardment, the phase in lunar history dominated by large impact events. Impacts during this period melted Ganymede so thoroughly and deeply that the heat could not be quickly removed. All of Ganymede’s rock sank to its center the same way that all the chocolate chips sink to the bottom of a melted carton of ice cream. Callisto received fewer impacts at lower velocities and avoided complete melting. Ganymede is closer to Jupiter and therefore is hit by twice as many icy impactors as Callisto, and the impactors hitting Ganymede have a higher average velocity.
..a few images/video stills from a visit to the ‘Ausia Ki Vusi women’s group in Ma’ufanga where I spent some time with ‘Oliva Vaka as she worked diligently to tohi (paint) ngatu. Like a lot of women in Tonga right now, ‘Olivia and her group don’t use kupesi (patterned stencils) during their koka’anga, opting instead to freehand the designs on top after the tapa is assembled. ‘Olivia is truly a skilled artist; she comes up with the design and the layout in her head, combining traditional kupesi patterns (she especially favors the tokelau feletoa and fata ‘o tui tonga) with original designs. She works with a speed and grace that speaks of her many years of experience & of her love for the art of making ngatu. Malie ‘Olivia!
More than his teeth were false, as Michael Coard and others have documented:
Although Washington considered his enslaved black workers unworthy of proper clothing (among other items), he certainly found their teeth quite worthy, so much so that he replaced a number of his unhealthy teeth with their healthy teeth, to his mouth from their mouths. While schoolchildren often were taught and sometimes still are taught about his wooden teeth — a story based on myth, they never were taught about his “slave” teeth — a story based on truth…Instead of (or in addition to) wooden teeth or standard dentures, Washington had teeth that actually were “yanked from the heads of his slaves and fitted into his dentures… [and also] apparently had slaves’ teeth transplanted into his own jaw in 1784…”
The White House itself, the home of presidents and quintessential symbol of the U.S. presidency, was built with slave labor, just like most other major building projects had been in the 18th-century United States…President Washington initially wanted to hire foreign labor to build the White House, but when he realized how costly it would be to pay people fairly, he resorted to slave labor…
While professing to abhor slavery and hope for its eventual demise, as president Washington…did everything he could to ensure that not one of the more than 300 people he owned could secure their freedom. During the 10 years of construction of the White House, George Washington spent time in Philadelphia where a law called the Gradual Abolition Act passed in 1780. It stated that any slaves brought into the state were eligible to apply for their freedom if they were there for longer than six months. To get around the law, Washington rotated the people working for him in bondage so that they were there for less than six months each.
Scumbag of the day: founding fucking fathers edition
Allow me to introduce you to the Red-eyed Crocodile Skink. Since these guys were recently discovered (mid to late nineties), there isn’t a whole lot that is known about them, but I’ll share a few facts with you here.
These guys can grow up to ten inches in length, though the average is more like seven.
They’re pretty shy and choose to play dead as their defense mechanism.
Other than geckos, these guys are one of the only lizards that vocalize. Their sound is described as a barking noise when they’re in distress